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Topology of VSI drive
Topology of CSI drive
Six-step drive waveforms
Topology of direct matrix converter
AC drives can be classified according to the following generic topologies:
Voltage-source inverter (VSI) drive topologies (see image): In a VSI drive, the DC output of the diode-bridge converter stores energy in the capacitor bus to supply stiff voltage input to the inverter. The vast majority of drives are VSI type with PWM voltage output.
Current-source inverter (CSI) drive topologies (see image): In a CSI drive, the DC output of the SCR-bridge converter stores energy in series-reactor connection to supply stiff current input to the inverter. CSI drives can be operated with either PWM or six-step waveform output.
Six-step inverter drive topologies (see image): Now largely obsolete, six-step drives can be either VSI or CSI type and are also referred to as variable-voltage inverter drives, pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) drives, square-wave drives or D.C. chopper inverter drives. In a six-step drive, the DC output of the SCR-bridge converter is smoothed via capacitor bus and series-reactor connection to supply via Darlington Pair or IGBT inverter quasi-sinusoidal, six-step voltage or current input to an induction motor.
Load commutated inverter (LCI) drive topologies: In an LCI drive (a special CSI case), the DC output of the SCR-bridge converter stores energy via DC link inductor circuit to supply stiff quasi-sinusoidal six-step current output of a second SCR-bridge's inverter and an over-excited synchronous machine.
Cycloconverter or matrix converter (MC) topologies (see image): Cycloconverters and MCs are AC-AC converters that have no intermediate DC link for energy storage. A cycloconverter operates as a three-phase current source via three anti-parallel-connected SCR-bridges in six-pulse configuration, each cycloconverter phase acting selectively to convert fixed line frequency AC voltage to an alternating voltage at a variable load frequency. MC drives are IGBT-based.
Doubly fed slip recovery system topologies: A doubly fed slip recovery system feeds rectified slip power to a smoothing reactor to supply power to the AC supply network via an inverter, the speed of the motor being controlled by adjusting the DC current.
Most drives use one or more of the following control platforms:
PWM V/Hz scalar control
PWM field-oriented control (FOC) or vector control
Direct torque control (DTC).
Variable-frequency drives are also categorized by the following load torque and power characteristics:
Variable torque, such as in centrifugal fan, pump, and blower applications
Constant torque, such as in conveyor and positive-displacement pump applications
Constant power, such as in machine tool and traction applications.
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