LI XIANG Variable-frequency drive-lx3000-01

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Energy savings

Many fixed-speed motor load applications that are supplied direct from AC line power can save energy when they are operated at variable speed by means of VFD. Such energy cost savings are especially pronounced in variable-torque centrifugal fan and pump applications, where the load's torque and power vary with the square and cube, respectively, of the speed. This change gives a large power reduction compared to fixed-speed operation for a relatively small reduction in speed. For example, at 63% speed a motor load consumes only 25% of its full-speed power. This reduction is in accordance with affinity laws that define the relationship between various centrifugal load variables.

In the United States, an estimated 60-65% of electrical energy is used to supply motors, 75% of which are variable-torque fan, pump, and compressor loads. Eighteen percent of the energy used in the 40 million motors in the U.S. could be saved by efficient energy improvement technologies such as VFDs.

Only about 3% of the total installed base of AC motors are provided with AC drives. However, it is estimated that drive technology is adopted in as many as 30-40% of all newly installed motors.

An energy consumption breakdown of the global population of AC motor installations is as shown in the following table:

Global population of motors, 2009
SmallGeneral Purpose - Medium-SizeLarge
Power10W - 750W0.75 kW - 375 kW375 kW - 10000 kW
Phase, voltage1-ph., <240V3-ph., 200V to 1kV3-ph., 1kV to 20kV
 % total motor energy9%68%23%
Total stock2 billion230 million0.6 million

Control performance

AC drives are used to bring about process and quality improvements in industrial and commercial applications' acceleration, flow, monitoring, pressure, speed, temperature, tension, and torque.

Fixed-speed loads subject the motor to a high starting torque and to current surges that are up to eight times the full-load current. AC drives instead gradually ramp the motor up to operating speed to lessen mechanical and electrical stress, reducing maintenance and repair costs, and extending the life of the motor and the driven equipment.

Variable-speed drives can also run a motor in specialized patterns to further minimize mechanical and electrical stress. For example, an S-curve pattern can be applied to a conveyor application for smoother deceleration and acceleration control, which reduces the backlash that can occur when a conveyor is accelerating or decelerating.

Performance factors tending to favor the use of DC drives over AC drives include such requirements as continuous operation at low speed, four-quadrant operation with regeneration, frequent acceleration and deceleration routines, and need for the motor to be protected for a hazardous area. The following table compares AC and DC drives according to certain key parameters:

Drive typeDCAC VFDAC VFDAC VFDAC VFD
Control platformBrush type DCV/Hz controlVector controlVector controlVector control
Control criteriaClosed-loopOpen-loopOpen-loopClosed-loopOpen-loop w. HFI^
MotorDCIMIMIMInterior PM
Typical speed regulation (%)0.0110.50.010.02
Typical speed range at constant torque (%)0-10010-1003-1000-1000-100
Min. speed at 100% torque (% of base)Standstill8%2%StandstillStandstill (200%)
Multiple-motor operation recommendedNoYesNoNoNo
Fault protection (Fused only or inherent to drive)Fused onlyInherentInherentInherentInherent
Maintenance(Brushes)LowLowLowLow
Feedback deviceTachometer or encoderN/AN/AEncoderN/A


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There are more USA jobs in electrical engineering than chemical engineers (see the source below) which may explain why I don't see that many chemical engineers. The few people I know who where chemist or chemical engineer moved into others fields. The one exception was a friend in college that I loss touch. Last I heard he working in production. All the EE that I know work in desk or lab work with occasional developmental testing of equipment in the field.
Q:What exactly is electrical engineering?
Electrical engineers specialize in research and development of electrical equipment, systems, parts and products. To become an electrical engineer, you typically complete a four-year electrical engineering program or get an engineering degree with electrical specialization. Electrical engineers work in offices, lab facilities or at manufacturing plants, and often have a hand in developing new products and uses of technology.
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Teflon is used in laboratory equipment and electrical insulation for its resistance to heat and many chemicals. Teflon is a trade name for a variety of fluoro-chlorocarbons, though it's pretty much become a generic term now. It's expensive compared to many other plastics, but some types are fairly cheap, and anyhow, there's not much stuff in a roll of teflon tape or a teflon frying pan. It starts to outgas at around 450°F. Technical applications are usually careful to keep it below that, but in the home, preheating an empty pan can take it to 700° or more, releasing enough toxic gas to kill your pet bird.
Q:Are most electrical things from China dodgy to buy?
the us is in a recession; NOTHING should be bought from China. also, China is a COMMUNIST nation.
Q:Electrodes are found in electrochemsistry, not in a generator?
According to Wikipedia: An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte or a vacuum). There is an example of an electrode used in generators, and all industrial/commercial electrical systems. It is called a grounding electrode. It is a metallic rod that is driven deep in to the dirt, to establish a contact with the background Earth voltage. Is the dirt a nonmetallic part of the circuit? Well, dirt often does contain metals in it, but it isn't dominantly metal, so it still is considered non-metallic. And we normally hope that the dirt isn't part of the circuit, but there is a chance that it can become part of the circuit, and that is generally why grounding electrodes are installed. The grounding electrode doesn't really play an active role in the operation of any of the electrical equipment. It is more of a safety feature, as a JUST IN CASE the insulation on the live wire fails. Suppose the live wire insulation fails, and the live wire contacts the metal structure of a device (that isn't intended to play an electrical role), and you as a human victim touch that metal structure. You are also standing on the ground, and the natural path of electric current from the metal structure to the ground is through your body. Unless of course, a better path is established in advance. And that is what a grounding electrode, and the rest of the grounding system does. It establishes electrical continuity with all metals that aren't intended to be electrically involved, so that any failure of the live wire will trip the circuit breaker before there is a chance that the human gets injured.
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Earthing system helping for Human safety to avoid electrocution due to earth leakage.Earth is acting like a Huge conductor because of it minerals Moisture contend (water).If any electrical equipment Insulation failure leakage will be there ,if the same equipment is not Grounded ,there is a possibilitiesof getting electric shock to Human.If the same equipment is Grounded the leakage current will flow to Earth protect from electric shocks Trip the circuit. Pl. check this link for brief idea.
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We refer to it as Demand Factor. Its the total calculations of all lighting, dedicated appliance, general use power in the unit of Current (Amps). We have a NEC formula to calculate what is required when build a dwelling or commercial build. usally done by engineers on the E-sheet of blue prints, but any lic. electrical contractor, journeyman, etc. can make those calculations. I am not going to write a 10 page explanation of Demand Factor calculations. Its not one easy formula. You have to add percentage value for light loads, general use is 180 watts per outlet. Continus duty circuits need to be cal. at 125% demandetc. See there is alot more, When I was an apprenntice I did not learn this stuff until fourth year. EDIT: Well isn't that a *****! Thats why i never heard of that term. UK refers to metered service as maximum demand? USA its called Kilowatt hour usage

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