Titanium alloy sheet - Strategic emerging industries
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Titanium is an important structural metal developed in the 1950s. Titanium alloys have high strength, good corrosion resistance, and high heat resistance. From the 1950s to the 1960s, it was mainly to develop high-temperature titanium alloys for aircraft engines and structural titanium alloys for airframes.
From the 1950s to the 1960s, it was mainly to develop high-temperature titanium alloys for aircraft engines and structural titanium alloys for airframes. In the 1970s, a number of corrosion-resistant titanium alloys were developed. Since the 1980s, corrosion-resistant titanium alloys and high-strength titanium alloys have been further developed. development of. The service temperature of heat-resistant titanium alloy has increased from 400℃ in the 1950s to 600～650℃ in the 90s. The emergence of A2 (Ti3Al) and r (TiAl) based alloys makes titanium in the engine's use part is advancing from the cold end (fan and compressor) of the engine to the hot end (turbine) of the engine. Structural titanium alloys are developing toward high strength, high plasticity, high strength, high toughness, high modulus, and high damage tolerance.
In addition, since the 1970s, shape memory alloys such as Ti-Ni, Ti-Ni-Fe, and Ti-Ni-Nb have appeared, and are increasingly used in engineering.
There are hundreds of titanium alloys developed in the world, and the most well-known alloys are 20 to 30, such as Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, Ti-2Al-2.5Zr, Ti-32Mo, Ti- Mo-Ni, Ti-Pd, SP-700, Ti-6242, Ti-10-5-3, Ti-1023, BT9, BT20, IMI829, IMI834, etc. [2,4].
According to relevant statistical data, the amount of titanium used in my country's chemical industry reached 25,000 tons in 2012, a decrease from 2011. This is the first time that my country's chemical titanium market has experienced negative growth since 2009. In recent years, the chemical industry has been the largest user of titanium processing materials, and its proportion in the total amount of titanium materials has been maintained at more than 50%. In 2011, it accounted for 55%. However, as the economy is in a downturn, the chemical industry has not only significantly reduced new construction projects, but also faced industrial restructuring, some products have new production capacity under control, and backward production capacity will also be phased out. Affected by this, its shrinkage of the amount of titanium processing materials has become logical. Prior to this, some insiders predicted that the amount of titanium used in the chemical industry will peak between 2013 and 2015. Judging from the current market performance, the weakening of the overall economy in 2012 may make the recession period of titanium for chemical industry advance.
Titanium is a new type of metal. The performance of titanium is related to the content of impurities such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen. The purity of titanium iodide does not exceed 0.1%, but its strength is low and its plasticity is high. The properties of 99.5% industrial pure titanium are: density ρ=4.5g/cubic centimeter, melting point 1725℃, thermal conductivity λ=15.24W/(mK), tensile strength σb=539MPa, elongation δ=25%, cross section Shrinkage ψ=25%, elastic modulus E=1.078×105MPa, hardness HB195.
The density of titanium alloy is generally about 4.51g/cubic centimeter, which is only 60% of steel. The density of pure titanium is close to that of ordinary steel. Some high-strength titanium alloys exceed the strength of many alloy structural steels. Therefore, the specific strength (strength/density) of titanium alloy is much greater than other metal structural materials. See Table 7-1, which can produce parts with high unit strength, good rigidity and light weight. Titanium alloys are used for aircraft engine components, skeletons, skins, fasteners, and landing gear.
High thermal strength
The use temperature is several hundred degrees higher than that of aluminum alloy. It can still maintain the required strength at medium temperature. It can work for a long time at a temperature of 450 to 500 ℃. These two types of titanium alloys are still very high in the range of 150 ℃ to 500 ℃. Specific strength, while the specific strength of aluminum alloy at 150 ℃ significantly decreased. The working temperature of titanium alloy can reach 500 ℃, aluminum alloy is below 200 ℃.
Good corrosion resistance
Titanium alloys work in humid atmosphere and seawater media, and their corrosion resistance is far superior to stainless steel; they are particularly resistant to pitting, acid corrosion, and stress corrosion; organic substances such as alkali, chloride, chlorine, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid Etc. have excellent corrosion resistance. But titanium has poor corrosion resistance to media with reducing oxygen and chromium salts.
Good low temperature performance
Titanium alloy can still maintain its mechanical properties under low temperature and ultra-low temperature. Titanium alloys with good low temperature performance and extremely low interstitial elements, such as TA7, can maintain a certain plasticity at -253℃. Therefore, titanium alloy is also an important low-temperature structural material.
Great chemical activity
Titanium has a high chemical activity and is compatible with O, N, H in the atmosphere
Titanium alloy products
, CO, CO2, steam, ammonia, etc. produce strong chemical reactions. When the carbon content is greater than 0.2%, hard TiC will be formed in the titanium alloy; when the temperature is high, the TiN hard surface layer will be formed when it interacts with N; above 600 ℃, titanium absorbs oxygen to form a hardened layer with high hardness ; Increased hydrogen content will also form a brittle layer. The depth of the hard and brittle surface produced by absorbing gas can reach 0.1～0.15 mm, and the degree of hardening is 20%～30%. Titanium also has a large chemical affinity, and is prone to adhere to friction surfaces.
Low thermal conductivity
The thermal conductivity of titanium λ = 15.24W/ (m.K) is about 1/4 of nickel, 1/5 of iron, 1/14 of aluminum, and the thermal conductivity of various titanium alloys is about 50% lower than that of titanium. The elastic modulus of titanium alloy is about 1/2 of that of steel, so its rigidity is poor and it is easy to deform. It is not suitable to make slender rods and thin-walled parts. The springback of the processed surface during cutting is very large, which is about 2 to 3 of stainless steel Times, causing violent friction, adhesion, adhesive wear on the flank of the tool.
- Q:Is the hardware store profitable?
- Hardware means gold, silver, copper, iron, tin. Later, metal was used to refer to all metals. In fact, a lot of hardware, whatever is money, you look at the hardware electrical market inside the boss is very rich, and the price is basically opaque, so if you do have to make sure
- Q:what is the Hardware classification?
- Tap, die| common thread tap | pipe thread tap | die | tap wrench | hinge plate | tap and die set | other taps, dies
- Q:What are the hardware parts of the door?
- The door handles, hinges, hardware accessories including fasteners (bolts, nuts), lock, door stopper, seal, such as cat's eye.
- Q:What does hardware include?
- Big hardware refers to steel plate, steel bar, flat iron, universal angle iron, trough iron, I-shaped iron and various types of steel materials;
- Q:CNC lathe processing precision hardware, how to choose the grinding wheel?
- Alumina grinding wheels are suitable for grinding low speed tools such as high speed steel, tool steel and plain carbon steel.
- Q:What is the rebate rate for hardware?
- According to the 5% tax rebate rate, the income is 170W, according to the vat of 17%, the tax refund amount is =170/1.17*0.05=7.27W
- Q:There is a round piece of hardware, want to buy online, do not know what the name of the call for help
- The hardware market especially. Why should you buy it on the Internet write online are installed with copper fittings and accessories iron fittings
- Q:What does bathroom hardware have?
- Bathroom hardware accessories, generally refers to the installation in the bathroom, the bathroom wall, for placing or hanging clothes cleaning supplies, towel products, general hardware products, including: single hook, towel bar, double towel bar, cup holder, double cup holder, soap dish, soap, towel, towel ring net frame, dresser clip, toilet brush, towel rack, double shelf, and metal faucet, shower and a series of products, you can see only recommend this brand of bathroom products, the only bathroom is mainly ceramic sanitary ware, bathroom furniture, bathroom accessories and other leading hardware, sanitary products, sanitary ware based on integration the three major functional areas, to meet the individual needs of consumers, and provide real-time design of DIY whole bathroom solutions. Unique bathroom calendar three years of careful planning, spending huge sums of money through the power of e-commerce and the experience of cities throughout the country, for the pursuit of affordable and high quality bathroom consumer demand services.
- Q:What are the commonly used hardware materials? What are their respective properties?
- Hardware, the past is gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, five kinds of metal materials collectively.Now, the hardware products are usually divided into two major categories: big hardware and hardware.Big hardware generally refers to metal plates, pipes, profiles, bars and wire;The hardware mainly includes coating material (such as tin), wire coating (such as Tie Si), a variety of small standard parts (such as fastening screws), non standard parts (such as wood screws) and various gadgets (such as a screwdriver) and so on.
- Q:What are door hardware included?
- Pipe hinge: also called spring hinge. Mainly used for furniture door panel connection, it is generally required thickness of 16~20 mm plate. Materials include galvanized iron and zinc alloy. The spring hinge is provided with an adjusting screw, which can adjust the height and thickness of the upper, the lower, the left and the right. One of its features is that it opens the door according to the space and the cabinet door. In addition to the general 90 degrees angle, 127 degrees, 144 degrees, 165 degrees and so on have corresponding hinge matching, so that all kinds of cabinet have corresponding extension.
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