Stainless steel pipes 316 pipe

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In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is a steelalloy with a minimum of 10.5%[1]chromium content by mass.

Stainless steel does not readily corrode, rust or stain with water as ordinary steel does. However, it is not fully stain-proof in low-oxygen, high-salinity, or poor air-circulation environments.[2] There are different grades and surface finishes of stainless steel to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Stainless steel is used where both the properties of steel and corrosion resistance are required.

Stainless steel differs from carbon steel by the amount of chromium present. Unprotected carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and moisture. This iron oxide film (the rust) is active and accelerates corrosion by forming more iron oxide; and, because of the greater volume of the iron oxide, this tends to flake and fall away. Stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to form a passive film of chromium oxide, which prevents further surface corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and blocks corrosion from spreading into the metal's internal structure, and, due to the similar size of the steel and oxide ions, they bond very strongly and remain attached to the surface.[3]

Passivation occurs only if the proportion of chromium is high enough and oxygen is present.

Oxidation[edit]

High oxidation resistance in air at ambient temperature is normally achieved with additions of a minimum of 13% (by weight) chromium, and up to 26% is used for harsh environments.[14] The chromium forms a passivation layer of chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3) when exposed to oxygen. The layer is too thin to be visible, and the metal remains lustrous and smooth. The layer is impervious to water and air, protecting the metal beneath, and this layer quickly reforms when the surface is scratched. This phenomenon is called passivation and is seen in other metals, such as aluminium and titanium. Corrosion resistance can be adversely affected if the component is used in a non-oxygenated environment, a typical example being underwater keel bolts buried in timber.

When stainless steel parts such as nuts and bolts are forced together, the oxide layer can be scraped off, allowing the parts to weld together. When forcibly disassembled, the welded material may be torn and pitted, an effect known as galling. This destructive galling can be avoided by the use of dissimilar materials for the parts forced together, for example bronze and stainless steel, or even different types of stainless steels (martensitic against austenitic). However, two different alloys electrically connected in a humid environment may act as Voltaic pile and corrode faster. Nitronic alloys made by selective alloying with manganese and nitrogen may have a reduced tendency to gall. Additionally, threaded joints may be lubricated to prevent galling.

Acids[edit]

Stainless steel is generally highly resistant to attack from acids, but this quality depends on the kind and concentration of the acid, the surrounding temperature, and the type of steel. Type 904 is resistant to sulfuric acid at room temperature, even in high concentrations, type 316 and 317 are resistant below 10% and 304 should not be used at any concentration. All types of stainless steel resist attack from phosphoric acid, 316 and 317 more so than 304; and Types 304L and 430 have been successfully used with nitric acid. Hydrochloric acid will damage any kind of stainless steel, and should be avoided.[15]

Bases[edit]

The 300 series of stainless steel grades is unaffected by any of the weak bases such as ammonium hydroxide, even in high concentrations and at high temperatures. The same grades of stainless exposed to stronger bases such as sodium hydroxide at high concentrations and high temperatures will likely experience some etching and cracking, especially with solutions containing chlorides.[15]

Organics[edit]

Types 316 and 317 are both useful for storing and handling acetic acid, especially in solutions where it is combined with formic acid and when aeration is not present (oxygen helps protect stainless steel under such conditions), though 317 provides the greatest level of resistance to corrosion. Type 304 is also commonly used with formic acid though it will tend to discolor the solution. All grades resist damage from aldehydes and amines, though in the latter case grade 316 is preferable to 304; cellulose acetate will damage 304 unless the temperature is kept low. Fats and fatty acids only affect grade 304 at temperatures above 150 °C (302 °F), and grade 316 above 260 °C (500 °F), while 317 is unaffected at all temperatures. Type 316L is required for processing of urea.[15]

Electricity and magnetism[edit]

Similarly to steel, stainless steel is a relatively poor conductor of electricity, with a lower electrical conductivity than that of copper.

Ferritic and martensitic stainless steels are magnetic. Austenitic stainless steels are non-magnetic.

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Q:The difference between stainless steel pipe and stainless steel composite pipe
Stainless steel pipe is a kind of hollow long strip round steel, mainly used in petroleum, chemical, medical, food, light industry, machinery, instrument and other industrial pipeline and mechanical structure parts. In addition, the bending and torsional strength of the same weight is lighter, so it is also widely used in the manufacture of mechanical parts and engineering structures. It is also used to produce all kinds of conventional weapons, guns, shells and so on.
Q:What are the categories of stainless steel pipes with acid and alkali resistance?
Stainless steel is usually classified according to the organization of the matrix, as follows:The ferritic stainless steel (200 and 400) the chromium content in 15%~30%, with a body centered cubic crystal structure. This kind of steel does not contain nickel, sometimes also contain a small amount of Mo, Ti, Nb and other elements, this kind of steel has high heat conductivity, low expansion coefficient, good oxidation resistance and anti stress excellent characteristics of stress corrosion, used formanufacturingthecorrosionresistanceofthe atmosphere, water vapor, waterandoxidizing parts. Ferritic stainless steel prices are relatively low and stable, and has many unique characteristics and advantages, it has been proved that in many of the original that can only use austenitic stainless steel (300) application of ferritic stainless steel is a very excellent substitute materials, ferritic stainless steel containing nickel, the main elements of Cr (>10%) and iron, chromium stainless steel special corrosion resistant elements, its price is relatively stable.. Chromium 12% ~ 30%. Its corrosion resistance and toughness increase with the increase of chromium content, and the weldability is excellent.
Q:304L stainless steel pipe can withstand 0.1MPA?
Stainless steel pipe is a kind of hollow long strip round steel, mainly used in petroleum, chemical, medical, food, light industry, machinery, instrument and other industrial pipeline and mechanical structure parts. In addition, the bending and torsional strength of the same weight is lighter, so it is also widely used in the manufacture of mechanical parts and engineering structures. It is also used to produce all kinds of conventional weapons, guns, shells and so on.
Q:What's the easiest way to distinguish between stainless steel 202 and 304?
They all belong to the austenitic stainless steel, 202 with Mn and N to replace part of nickel, so as to obtain the mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, is a new type of stainless steel nickel, his strength at room temperature is higher than 304, there are no good oxidation resistance and magnetic strength in medium temperature below 800 degrees. Potions don't fly
Q:Stainless steel pipe drilling?
General requirements for processing stainless steel workpiece hole smooth, less burr, white technology generally choose high-quality grinding drill, on the market are mostly black rolling process, the main difference between full grinding and rolling process is drilling with the drill chuck supporting the overall use of small amplitude and hole grinding, less burr, the accuracy is high especially, when batch processing efficiency.
Q:Where is the difference between seamless steel pipe or welded pipe?
The steel tube is a hollow steel strip, used as pipe conveying fluid, such as oil, gas, water, gas, steam, in addition, the bending and torsional strength of the same, the weight is light, so it is widely used in the manufacture of machinery parts and engineering structures. It is also used to produce all kinds of conventional weapons, guns, shells and so on.
Q:What's the difference between stainless steel 304 and stainless steel 202?
Different chemical composition. 304 of the nickel is much higher than 202.
Q:About stainless steel welding deformation
In fact, the deformation of stainless steel and carbon steel caused little difference, but the deformation is greater than carbon steel, the treatment method is the same.(1) using smaller welding rod and smaller current.(2) correcting welding sequence;(3) before welding, clamp the weldment to avoid warping.(4) avoid excessive cooling or preheating of base metal.(5) the welding penetration is low.(6) reduce weld gap and reduce slotting degree.(7) pay attention to the welding size, not to make the welding bead too big.(8) pay attention to the fixed measures to prevent deformation.
Q:What is the difference between stainless steel tube 304L and 304N?
304L is a variety of 304 stainless steel with low carbon content, used for occasions where welding is required.
Q:Stainless steel pipe welding interface leakage, how can we not leak?
The gap between the group and the WPS should be corresponding, and the gap is too big or too small, which will lead to welding defects;

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